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Author Topic: Steam Aircraft Mozhaiskogo  (Read 3377 times)
morozow
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« on: February 10, 2016, 11:18:52 am »

Mozhaysky's airplane was an experimental Russian airplane designed and built by a naval officer, Alexander Mozhaysky (also transliterated as Mozhayski, Mozhaiski and Mozhayskiy). Powered by two steam engines, the monoplane design reputedly made a powered take off assisted by the use of a ramp, flying between 20–30 m (66–98 ft) near Krasnoye Selo, Russia in 1884.

Documents directly recorded the progress of the testing of the aircraft Mozhaisky, not preserved. In later sources (the turn of XIX—XX centuries) indicates that it crashed while attempting takeoff. According to some of these sources, of course, had the short-term separation of the apparatus from the earth, and it is this version of events found its reflection in Russian Military encyclopedia (1914).. Subsequently, however, some Soviet/Russian researchers have subjected the reliability of separation of aircraft Mozhaisky from the land question (continuing, to take his first airplane in the world, who have tried to raise in the air with a man aboard).

In the USSR there were attempts, based on scant extant information about the technical appearance of the aircraft Mozhaiskogo, set (theoretically or experimentally), it is probable aircraft performance data and to answer questions about the possibility of committing the steady flight and the conditions under which he could take off. These studies also gave different results. According to the most modern studies conducted in TSAGI, the force developed by the propulsion of the aircraft Mozhaiskogo, given its likely aerodynamic and weight characteristics, were insufficient for the steady-state horizontal flight.  It was also shown that with a more powerful engine, which Mozhaysky had planned shortly before his death, the aircraft might have been able to fly.



To protect his invention from different attacks, he submits, in June 1880 a petition to the Department of Trade and Manufactures for the extradition of a privilege or copyright certificates for his aeronautic missile. The application was accompanied by a detailed explanatory memorandum and drawings. Here's how the author himself describes his flight: "described below and shown in the drawing aeronautic shell consists of the following main parts: wings, placed between Vimy boat tail, cart wheels, which put the whole shell machines for rotation of the propellers and masts in order to strengthen the wings . The wings are made stationary projectile. The tail consists of two planes: horizontal and vertical, the first may rise and fall and is intended to guide a projectile upwards and downwards, while the second moves to the right and left, and makes the shell rotate in all directions.

The boat is used for space vehicles, materials for them, cargo and people. Trolley with wheels, which put the whole shell and firmly attached, used for takeoff aircraft shells on the ground before his elevation, the air also acts as a balancer trolley or plummet. When the progressive movement in the air screws flying projectiles, rotating machines, due to air resistance lead projectile in motion. "

One of the greatest challenges facing the Mozhaisk in the construction of the aircraft, was to select the appropriate type of engine. Steam engines for his staff produced an English firm Arbeker-Hemkens. Their description is given in the journal "Engineering" in 1881. One of them at 300 rpm gave the power of 20 liters. pp. with a weight of 47.6 kg, the other - at 450 rpm - developed 10 liters. pp. and weighed 28.6 kg.

In the summer of 1881 the main part of the aircraft were ready. To assemble the apparatus of the inventor was allotted to Krasnoselsk military field, near St. Petersburg, a separate plot. The most valuable document detailing the aircraft Mozhaysky is article cavalry cadets N. Myasoyedov, published in "New Era" on Nov. 7, 1910. Miasoyedov often been in the Red village, had several conversations with the inventor.

"Monoplane was built - he writes - a fence made of boards without a roof. Rain is often watered and ruined the car. Monoplane was a boat with wooden ribs covered with cloth. The boat rested on a rectangular wing, slightly curved, concave upwards. All are covered with thin silk cloth soaked with lacquer. Bindings wings of wood (pine). Apparatus standing with wheels. The wings were approximately six feet (a little) from the ground. As the boat, two masts. Wings held by a wire rope stretched to the mast and to the stand. Engine 2 located in front of the boat: a big little promoted from the middle of the boat, smaller even closer to the nose. The device of the engine and was the secret of A. Mozhaiskogo. Screws were three of the four blades each, the two slots in the wings against the big engine. Third on the nose boats on the shaft of a smaller engine. Frames screws, wooden, covered with thin boards. Shove wire. Screws covered with gray paint. rudders, two - vertically and horizontally, are attached to the stern and driven by wire ropes and winches placed near the stern. The work was slow on the occasion of lack of money, which Mr. Mozhajskij not hide. Nobody was interested in his work, and there was no help from anywhere. "

In the course of construction there were some changes. In particular, as it found the famous aircraft designer VB Shavrov, the plane all three screws have the same diameter, whereas in the "Privileges" front screw significantly more lateral. The side screws are not rotated in the rear of the wing slots and slots in front of him, about 40% of its width. The anterior screw was rotated on the motor shaft at 10 liters. pp. The other two screws were driven by belt drives the engine of 20 liters. pp. They rotate in different directions. According to the Journal, the committee meeting to review the draft of the flying device Mozhaysky, "a cloth surface is 4000 square meters. Feet, the aircraft weight should be 57 pounds ...".

The archives are preserved reports of the inventor from 1881 to 1886 to allow him to test the device in flight. But how-ever complete descriptions of these tests do not. True, there are clear references to the fact that they were. In the journal "Memoirs of engineering and technical Russian society", 1893 One of the engineers suggested measures to prevent "dangerous swings from very possibly have airplanes," and cites an example: "... can be seen from the experience of captain rank Mozhaysky with his airplane, and it very nearly came to disaster, as that I know of one here present our esteemed leaders on aeronautics. In the same journal reported experiments Mozhaiskogo said: "The test device failed, and the mechanic, operate machinery, suffered injury." In the journal "aeronaut" for 1909 states: "In the years 1884-1885 the airplane was built on the military field in the village of Red. When takeoff airplane tilted to one side and broke a support surface."

After the failure plane Mozhajskij was unable to continue his experiments, because no funds are available. A Defense Ministry has denied him any further assistance. Despite this, in 1886, Alexander Fedorovich has built at the Obukhov plant two engines of 20 hp. pp. with a steam boiler, one of which was prepared for 1887. Death cut short the research activities of the first in the world aircraft manufacturers.


It is known that the aircraft Mozhaysky was somewhat different from the patented project. Drawings, photographs or precise technical descriptions of the aircraft have not survived. But not once there were attempts of reconstruction of the image.



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Sorry for the errors, rudeness and stupidity. It's not me, this online translator. Really convenient?
J. Wilhelm
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« Reply #1 on: February 11, 2016, 09:00:29 pm »

Thank you for posting.  This is really interesting.  He certainly had enough surface area for lift.  The issue was only stability and control.

Have you seen "The Guild of Icarus"  meta-club here in Brassgoggles?

http://brassgoggles.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,46795.0.html
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morozow
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« Reply #2 on: February 12, 2016, 12:11:17 am »

Thank you for posting.  This is really interesting.  He certainly had enough surface area for lift.  The issue was only stability and control.

Have you seen "The Guild of Icarus"  meta-club here in Brassgoggles?


Thanks for the rating, but I just got lucky. In the English-speaking Internet I found a text which is italicized. Why it happened is clear.

As I understand it, the issue would be in the power of the engine and the actual weight of the plane. It is the absence of light and powerful engines for a long time were not allowed to create a flying machine heavier than air.

Yeah, I looked there. But 1) the language barrier, I only understand the General topic of discussion 2) I do not really know the achievements modern jet planes and space. Perhaps I can talk about old and realized Soviet projects.

By the way, You know about Zander and his project? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Zander

In 1911, he published plans for a spacecraft built using combustible alloys of aluminum in its structure that would take off like a conventional aircraft and then burn its wings for fuel as it reached the upper atmosphere and no longer needed them.



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Maets
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« Reply #3 on: February 12, 2016, 01:03:50 am »

That is a very interesting idea. Consuming the craft itself.  Forget reusable space craft.
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J. Wilhelm
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« Reply #4 on: February 12, 2016, 07:17:05 am »

Thank you for posting.  This is really interesting.  He certainly had enough surface area for lift.  The issue was only stability and control.

Have you seen "The Guild of Icarus"  meta-club here in Brassgoggles?


Thanks for the rating, but I just got lucky. In the English-speaking Internet I found a text which is italicized. Why it happened is clear.

As I understand it, the issue would be in the power of the engine and the actual weight of the plane. It is the absence of light and powerful engines for a long time were not allowed to create a flying machine heavier than air.

Yeah, I looked there. But 1) the language barrier, I only understand the General topic of discussion 2) I do not really know the achievements modern jet planes and space. Perhaps I can talk about old and realized Soviet projects.

By the way, You know about Zander and his project? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Zander

In 1911, he published plans for a spacecraft built using combustible alloys of aluminum in its structure that would take off like a conventional aircraft and then burn its wings for fuel as it reached the upper atmosphere and no longer needed them.






You are correct.  The two major obstacles cleared by the Wright Brothers were propulsion (a powerful light engine and propeller), and the control surfaces (to stabilize rotation in 3-axis). The solved it using cables to warp the wings, and also developed their own engine and propeller.

That is a very interesting idea, to consume the vehicle itself, and follows from rocket theory, in which the most efficient weight is to consume the "dead weight."

Although it would be a nightmare to control the combustion of the wing in a proper way.

You're welcome to participate in the Club of Icarus.  The topic turned into a very "modern" discussion, because someone started discussing spacecraft, but all aeronautical subjects are valid subjects (even fantasy concepts).
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Captain
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« Reply #5 on: February 14, 2016, 03:29:45 am »

I like this quote:

"In 1812, desiring to attack Napoleon's army during the French invasion of Russia, Alexander I commissioned the German engineer Leppig to build a large fish-shaped airship propelled by fins:[1] the craft inflated but became damaged and failed to lift off.[2][3] "



http://www.thesteampunkempire.com/group/naca/forum/topics/russian-soviet-airships 
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-Karl
morozow
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« Reply #6 on: February 14, 2016, 04:42:51 pm »

HOHOHO. Just remembered about this project.

I like this picture.

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Maets
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« Reply #7 on: February 14, 2016, 05:37:40 pm »

That is a fun design.  Lots of potential.
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Captain
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« Reply #8 on: February 14, 2016, 06:55:47 pm »

HOHOHO. Just remembered about this project.

I like this picture.




That is an excellent illustration of Leppig's airship. 
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