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Author Topic: Helicopter: This Great Forgotten  (Read 2109 times)
chicar
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« on: September 13, 2015, 12:09:55 am »

The early history of helicopters according to Wikipedia:
''                                               Early design

The earliest references for vertical flight have come from China. Since around 400 BC,[8] Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys.[9][10][11] This bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, and the toy flies when released.[8] The 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong (抱朴子 "Master who Embraces Simplicity") reportedly describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft.[12]

This Chinese helicopter toy was introduced into Europe and appeared in Renaissance paintings and other works.[11][13][14] Early Western scientists developed flying machines based on the original Chinese model.[15][16]

It was not until the early 1480s, when Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight. His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate.[17][18] As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, men continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. Many of these later models and machines would more closely resemble the ancient bamboo flying top with spinning wings, rather than Leonardo's screw.

In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by wound-up spring device [16] and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was powered by a spring and suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, and his mechanic, Bienvenu, used a coaxial version of Chinese top in a model consisting of a contrarotating of turkey flight feathers [16] as rotor blades, and in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, grew up to develop a model of feathers, similar to Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power. His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers.[17] Alphonse Pénaud would later develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870, also powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight.[19]

In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small, steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, aluminum, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to eventually describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle that was also powered by a steam engine, was the first of its type that rose to a height of 12 meters (40 ft), where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground.[17] In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave Trouvé, built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.[citation needed]


In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr., to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine. The helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments.[21] Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters (1.6 ft) in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter reached four meters (13 ft) in altitude and flew for over 1,500 meters (4,900 ft).[22] In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor,[20] but it never flew.[23]

                                                                 First flights

In 1906, two French brothers, Jacques and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In 1907, those experiments resulted in the Gyroplane No.1, possibly as the earliest known example of a quadcopter. Although there is some uncertainty about the date, sometime between 14 August and 29 September 1907, the Gyroplane No. 1 lifted its pilot into the air about two feet (0.6 m) for a minute.[6] The Gyroplane No. 1 proved to be extremely unsteady and required a man at each corner of the airframe to hold it steady. For this reason, the flights of the Gyroplane No. 1 are considered to be the first manned flight of a helicopter, but not a free or untethered flight.


That same year, fellow French inventor Paul Cornu designed and built a Cornu helicopter that used two 20-foot (6 m) counter-rotating rotors driven by a 24 hp (18 kW) Antoinette engine. On 13 November 1907, it lifted its inventor to 1 foot (0.3 m) and remained aloft for 20 seconds. Even though this flight did not surpass the flight of the Gyroplane No. 1, it was reported to be the first truly free flight with a pilot.[n 1] Cornu's helicopter completed a few more flights and achieved a height of nearly 6.5 feet (2 m), but it proved to be unstable and was abandoned.[6]

In 1911, Slovenian philosopher and economist Ivan Slokar patented a helicopter configuration.[24][25][26]

The Danish inventor Jacob Ellehammer built the Ellehammer helicopter in 1912. It consisted of a frame equipped with two counter-rotating discs, each of which was fitted with six vanes around its circumference. After indoor tests, the aircraft was demonstrated outdoors and made several free take-offs. Experiments with the helicopter continued until September 1916, when it tipped over during take-off, destroying its rotors.[27]''


I'm sure it can be inspiring for some of you.
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The word pagan came from paganus , who mean peasant . Its was a way to significate than christianism was the religion of the elite and paganism the one of the savage worker class.

''Trickster shows us how we trick OURSELVES. Her rampant curiosity backfires, but, then, something NEW is discovered (though usually not what She expected)! This is where creativity comes from—experiment, do something different, maybe even something forbidden, and voila! A breakthrough occurs! Ha! Ha! We are released! The world is created anew! Do something backwards, break your own traditions, the barrier breaks; destroy the world as you know it, let the new in.''
Extract of the Dreamflesh article ''Path of The Sacred Clown''
Maets
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« Reply #1 on: September 13, 2015, 12:14:40 am »

Thanks for the info.  Didn't realize how far back it went. Lots of steampunk potential.
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BGHilton
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« Reply #2 on: September 13, 2015, 01:58:23 am »

But wouldn't the rotors send smoke/steam back into the cockpit?
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Captain
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« Reply #3 on: September 13, 2015, 04:16:59 am »

A little more on helicopter history:  http://www.thesteampunkempire.com/group/naca/forum/topics/rotory-wing-aircraft  


Mr. Emile Berliner began experimenting with vertical flight aircraft in the early 1900's, with a successful recorded tethered flight around 1909.


The Berliner helicopter based on the Neiuport 23 fuselage c. 1921.


No. 10616. Berliner Helicopter No.5
« Last Edit: September 13, 2015, 09:32:27 pm by Captain » Logged

-Karl
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« Reply #4 on: September 13, 2015, 05:01:02 am »

No photos? This forum has built-in functions to make it easy to include photos.
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J. Wilhelm
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« Reply #5 on: September 13, 2015, 05:34:10 am »

Actually, this is a great bit of info. Thank you for posting this.

Certainly a clockwork or steam idea can come from this history.

[Mod hat]
I'm not sure whether to keep this thread here or send it to Historical.  I don't want to be a pedant about it, so I'll keep it here for now
[Mod hat/]

I did have a visiting engineer at our college , back around 1996, who worked for Sikorsky, and he had a request for one of the aircraft design teams, specifically he believed that according to theory the most efficient rotor would be a ",mono blade" design, inspired by a tree seed with a single blade and a counterweight.

I forget what the exact argument for that was. I knew about the high aspect ratio being more efficient (a corollary of lifting line theory), but I didn't know about any one hoping through the complication of a mono blade. It all seemed so "DA Vincean," to me. 

He did get the team to build a working model as part of the final exam. He looked 100 years old to me, but was an interesting visitor.  He did explain some of the history of the helicopter, and an interesting discussion was how to hinge the rotor blades to avoid "torquing" the rotor hub (isolate the rotor axis from bending moments and allowing the cabin to "hang," like a basket from underneath the rotor.
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Captain
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« Reply #6 on: September 13, 2015, 06:14:03 am »

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Hurricane Annie
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« Reply #7 on: September 13, 2015, 09:36:42 am »



Yes . Photos or it didn't happen ! !

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Banfili
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« Reply #8 on: September 13, 2015, 02:09:31 pm »

Punked up, a dragonfly would make a good helicopter - any one good at insects (looks tellingly in Maets direction!)
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« Reply #9 on: September 13, 2015, 04:26:24 pm »

I always thought gyrocopters looked Steampunk-friendly.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ELA_cougar.jpg


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bensengyrocopter001.jpg


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VPM_M-16.JPG


http://www.airventure.de/oshkosh05/preview/kosh05_gyrocopter_1602.jpg

I don't think I'd trust this one at all:

(Other cool things at his website; I think these are all intended as art pieces.)
http://cargocollective.com/brandonjacques/Mk3-Gyrocopter

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chicar
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« Reply #10 on: September 13, 2015, 05:47:45 pm »

No photos? This forum has built-in functions to make it easy to include photos.

Here a direct link to the page with all the photos your heart desire:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopter
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Captain
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« Reply #11 on: September 13, 2015, 07:38:30 pm »



Yes . Photos or it didn't happen ! !




  With Mt. McKinley (aka Denali) in the background. 
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RJBowman
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« Reply #12 on: September 13, 2015, 08:35:16 pm »

Edison's patent drawing:


Paul Cornu's helicopter in 1907:


The friggin bamboo toy that ancient Chinese children played with:


Just insert those into your text; it will make the article more interesting, and help us all visualize the history, and encourage us to incorporate this history into our daydream steampunk worlds.

Here's how I do it:
http://brassgoggles.co.uk/forum/index.php?topic=38845.0
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Atterton
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« Reply #13 on: September 13, 2015, 09:21:46 pm »

I did always wonder why Jesus had a helicopter.
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« Reply #14 on: September 14, 2015, 12:35:17 am »

Thanks Chicar and others, fascinating to know how far back it goes.
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Hurricane Annie
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« Reply #15 on: September 14, 2015, 06:24:37 am »

Punked up, a dragonfly would make a good helicopter - any one good at insects (looks tellingly in Maets direction!)


Vintage New Zealand aviation.  Giant insects have been   in use for aerial transport  in N.Z. for  decades.
http://www.aucklandmuseum.com/collections-research/collections/search?k=george+bourne&dept=photographs

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/george-bourne-and-photo-montages



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Maets
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« Reply #16 on: September 14, 2015, 06:33:49 am »





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« Reply #17 on: September 14, 2015, 07:07:33 am »



Yes . Photos or it didn't happen ! !




I don't know if you're referring to me, but I have Internet "fossile evidence" of the activities at UT that I speak of when I was taking the Aircracft Design Course> Do note that this happened in 1996, which unfortunately was 19 years ago  :'(

http://www.humanpoweredhelicopters.org/texas/index.htm

http://www.humanpoweredhelicopters.org/sikorskyprize/AHS_Sopher_May_97.pdf

Quote
Project: University of Texas at Austin

There seems to have been a human powered helicopter project at the University of Texas at Austin back in 1996. The project is mentioned in a 1997 article which leads us to believe that Prof. R. Stearman was its leader and made use of joined wings. See the article by Stearman on joined wings.

The link to their website is now dead:
http://www.ae.utexas.edu/design/hph/summ96/welcome.html

If you have any information about this project, please contact me.
Links: University of Texas at Austin, Aerospace Engineering Student Projects


Yuri II Human Powered Helicopted from the team led by Prof. Naito from Nihon University, Japan.  This was a contemporary project which influenced competition between universities at the time:

« Last Edit: September 14, 2015, 07:16:22 am by J. Wilhelm » Logged
Hurricane Annie
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« Reply #18 on: September 14, 2015, 07:11:39 am »



Yes . Photos or it didn't happen ! !




I don't know if you're referring to me, but I have Internet "fossile evidence" of the activities at UT that I speak of when I was taking the Aircracft Design Course> Do note that this happened in 1996, which unfortunately was 19 years ago  :'(

http://www.humanpoweredhelicopters.org/texas/index.htm

http://www.humanpoweredhelicopters.org/sikorskyprize/AHS_Sopher_May_97.pdf

Quote
Project: University of Texas at Austin

There seems to have been a human powered helicopter project at the University of Texas at Austin back in 1996. The project is mentioned in a 1997 article which leads us to believe that Prof. R. Stearman was its leader and made use of joined wings. See the article by Stearman on joined wings.

The link to their website is now dead:
http://www.ae.utexas.edu/design/hph/summ96/welcome.html

If you have any information about this project, please contact me.
Links: University of Texas at Austin, Aerospace Engineering Student Projects



 The project looks to have had a crash landing  Undecided
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« Reply #19 on: September 14, 2015, 07:21:20 am »

 Cheesy That's just par for the course  Cheesy No one said research had to be "safe"  Grin

The competition that had everybody fussing about at the time was the Igor Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition.  This is a Da-Vinci-esque competition that has been running for decades and a kind of Holy Grail for college students

AeroVelo Wins the 33-Year Old AHS Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition


Human-Powered Helicopter: Straight Up Difficult
« Last Edit: September 14, 2015, 07:24:17 am by J. Wilhelm » Logged
Hurricane Annie
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« Reply #20 on: September 14, 2015, 09:07:15 am »




It will be interesting to see how the design is streamlined and modified over time.  We will see human powered  heli flight - if only for recreational purpose in years to come.
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« Reply #21 on: September 14, 2015, 09:39:54 am »




It will be interesting to see how the design is streamlined and modified over time.  We will see human powered  heli flight - if only for recreational purpose in years to come.

The limiting factor is the human power to weight ratio, which is usually too low. The structure needs to be truly lightweight, and as you can see it is very large and cumbersome.  Note how slow the 4 rotors turn.

The old guy who came to visit the university had claimed that as an engineer, he designed a type of aero-brake system for re-usable missiles, which deployed a single "wing" instead of two blades, acting as a type of gyrocopter, to slow down the descent of the spent missile .

It sounds too complicated to take away one of the two blades of the rotor, but his claim was that the efficiency of the rotor (lidt to weight ratio) increased substantially, and he thought that would benefit the HPH student competitors (1996).

Of course my own team had a crazy project too (VTOL short haul jet liner), but I have to admit their project was far more insane than mine  Grin

Monocopter (Wiki): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monocopter

Quote
A monocopter or gyropter is a rotorcraft that uses a single rotating blade. The concept is similar to the whirling helicopter seeds that fall from some trees. The name gyropter is sometimes applied to monocopters in which the entire aircraft rotates about its center of mass as it flies. The name "monocopter" has also been applied to the personal jet pack constructed by Andreas Petzoldt.[1]


The Papin-Rouilly Gyroptère, 1913-1914 (Same article in Wiki)


Quote
Papin-Rouilly Gyroptère

The Gyroptère was designed in 1913–1914 by Alphonse Papin and Didier Rouilly in France, inspired by a maple seed. Papin and Rouilly obtained French patents 440,593 and 440,594 for their invention, and later obtained US patent 1,133,660 in 1915.[2] The Gyroptère was characterized in the contemporary French journal La Nature in 1914 as "un boomerang géant" (a giant boomerang).

Apparently, this is a serious idea that has been pursued many times before. See this 1960s German prototype Monocopter:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%B6lkow_Bo_103

Bölkow Bo 103 (1962) German research monocopter

Note the red counterweight. It's hard to see, but there is a single long blade in the rotor, and a small aspirin-shaped counterweight at the end of a short pole on the other side.
« Last Edit: September 14, 2015, 09:46:59 am by J. Wilhelm » Logged
J. Wilhelm
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« Reply #22 on: September 14, 2015, 09:42:57 am »



Is there any room/interest for a serious aeronautical club at Brassgoggles? I'm still trying to gauge interest on it ... given a few comments I read before on my technical rants explanations. Fantasy would be allowed, but I envision the club would delve deeply into the mechanics of flight, for those interested in deeper discussions.
« Last Edit: September 14, 2015, 10:01:52 am by J. Wilhelm » Logged
Hurricane Annie
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« Reply #23 on: September 14, 2015, 11:26:23 am »

it could be an interesting point of discussion.  There is often   aeronautics popping up  in threads on here.  There must be a few keen enthusiasts - even if they are armchair aeronauts





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Captain
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« Reply #24 on: September 29, 2015, 06:08:27 am »



Is there any room/interest for a serious aeronautical club at Brassgoggles? I'm still trying to gauge interest on it ... given a few comments I read before on my technical rants explanations. Fantasy would be allowed, but I envision the club would delve deeply into the mechanics of flight, for those interested in deeper discussions.

Let me know if you start one. 
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